Category Archives: Video tutorials

Demystifying SMB 3 x multichannel – part 9 – VM1 (Debian Linux 10) on Host1 to VM2 (Windows Server 2019) on Host2

I finally managed to make it work … 🙂 So this time we are trying to establish multichannel between Debian Linux with Samba 4.9.5-Debian and Windows server 2019 (that preferres SMB 3.1.1 dialect). Each of VMs on separate Hyper-V hosts has 4 virtual network adapters connected. I entered the hostnames of VMs in hosts files both – on Windows and Linux as I am not running any DNS server in the test network.
So I added 4 entries on each machine. On Debian I have created a simple smb.conf example file to make it work:

[global]
workgroup = WORKGROUP
interfaces = eth0, eth1, eth2, eth3
bind interfaces only = Yes
vfs objects = recycle aio_pthread
aio read size = 1
aio write size = 1
strict locking = No
use sendfile = no
server multi channel support = yes
server string = samba server
security = USER
encrypt passwords = yes
smb passwd file = /etc/samba/smbpasswd
guest ok = yes

[storage]
comment = Storage
path = /var/samba
writeable = yes
public = no

As you can see in video by using Linux command in terminal: smbstatus I am getting similar information as running get-smbmultichannel Powershell cmdlet on Windows. I can clearly see how servers are connected between them by using SMB protocol.

As you can see in video Windows machine, from which I am copying data to Linux utilizes all four network adapters but we are getting only 2 gigabit throughput. On Linux side there are only two NICs utilized. I was not able to make it work by using all four adapters (like machines were utilizing in previous part in Windows VM to Windows VM scenario). Well I just wanted to demonstrate that concept works also in mixed environment with Windows and Linux.

Demystifying SMB 3.x multichannel – part 1 – quick introduction

I am a big fan of SMB 3.x multi-channel feature that Microsoft implemented for the first time in Windows server 2012. As I am also a big fan of Hyper-V and I want my hosts to have the ability to copy files between them (ISOs, VHDXs …) as fast as possible I wanted to create this short series of articles about multi-channel feature. I was really happy when I saw Mr. Linus Sebastian posted a video Quadruple Your Network Speed for $100 with SMB 3.0 Multichannel! so I decided to create a small series of videos to also see what advantages of using it in a production environment are and why.

For this test I used 2x Dell R730xd with 2 CPUs (Xeon E5-2620) and with Dell Intel I350 Quad-Port Gigabit Ethernet and MikroTik switch CRS226-24G-2S+.

For those not familiar with SMB 3.x multichannel I would like to point out an (old) article by Mr. Jose Barreto: https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/josebda/2012/06/28/the-basics-of-smb-multichannel-a-feature-of-windows-server-2012-and-smb-3-0/

So in this first part I would like to show, how SMB 3.x multichannel (I am putting that x there as SMB versions are changing (table at point 4) in each release of Windows server (and client too!) works.
In this demo I will be using Windows server 2019 which uses SMB dialect 3.1.1. You can check the dialect that your servers / clients are using by typing following cmdlet in Powershell: Get-SmbConnection

smb dialect

In the following video you can see the first example – two servers connected with 4 NICs each to the switch – without any extra configuration (there are no IP addresses configured) but you can see that when we copy files from server 1 to server 2 we utilise all 4 NICs on server 1 and all 4 NICs on server 2 – it can be clearly seen also on switch. To get information how your server utilizes SMB 3.x multichannel you can use Powershell cmdlet: Get-SmbMultichannelConnection

 

“Demystifying” – Windows server 2012 Hyper-V 3.0 network virtualization – part III – (two hosts / two subnets)

In this part III I would like to show you how network virtualization works between two Hyper-V hosts in different subnet (in my example connected HV01 – Router (IPSec VPN) – WAN – WAN – Router (IPsec VPN) – HV02).

You can see how to do that by clicking on a link to video tutorial:
http://www.screencast.com/t/pRDC7Z4UKrg  – Hyper-V 3.0 – Network virtualization Part 4

* at 1:48 – I have already copy pasted that before – you should do it on both hosts
* at 2:04 – there is mistake as those parameters were already there so I removed them and resumed with video recording
* at 2:43 – I did not paste the second part to HV02 (I already did that in previous demo)
* at 3:59 – You will not see GRE traffic until you add Ethernet card to monitoring

In my environment I have two hyper-v hosts called HV01 (10.17.217.177 with gw 10.17.217.1 (router – that makes IPSec VPN)) and HV02 (10.17.218.177 with gw 10.17.218.1 (router – that makes IPSec VPN)).

So only Hyper-V hosts “see” each other over VPN (two different subnets).

I have used folowing powershell cmdlets:

First we need to enable ms_netwnv component on !PHYSICAL! nic – not on virtual switch NIC!
Run it on HV01 and HV02:

Enable-NetAdapterBinding “Ethernet” -ComponentID ms_netwnv

Now we create Lookup record and CustomerRoute (we use IP addresses of our virtual machines, their mac address and IP address of Hyper-V host) This is explained in my previous post.
Run it on HV01 and HV02:
New-NetVirtualizationLookupRecord -CustomerAddress “10.10.10.11” -ProviderAddress “10.17.217.177” -VirtualSubnetID “5001” -MACAddress “AAAAAAAAAA01” -Rule “TranslationMethodEncap”
New-NetVirtualizationLookupRecord -CustomerAddress “10.10.10.12” -ProviderAddress “10.17.218.177” -VirtualSubnetID “5001” -MACAddress “AAAAAAAAAA02” -Rule “TranslationMethodEncap”
New-NetVirtualizationCustomerRoute -RoutingDomainID “{11111111-2222-3333-4444-000000000000}” -VirtualSubnetID “5001” -DestinationPrefix “10.10.10.0/24” -NextHop “0.0.0.0” -Metric 255

Now only on HV01 you should configure provider address and provider route (this is how hosts will get connectivity to each other…):
New-NetVirtualizationProviderAddress -InterfaceIndex 12 -ProviderAddress “10.17.217.177” -PrefixLength 24

New-NetVirtualizationProviderRoute -InterfaceIndex 12 -DestinationPrefix “0.0.0.0/0” -NextHop “10.17.217.1”

The same thing on HV02:
New-NetVirtualizationProviderAddress -InterfaceIndex 12 -ProviderAddress “10.17.218.177” -PrefixLength 24
New-NetVirtualizationProviderRoute -InterfaceIndex 12 -DestinationPrefix “0.0.0.0/0” -NextHop “10.17.218.1”

At the end we need to add VirtualSubnetID parameter to our VM’s sitting on HV01 and on HV02

HV01 (Where Blue01 VM sits):
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName Blue01 | where {$_.MacAddress -eq “AAAAAAAAAA01”} | Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VirtualSubnetID 5001

HV02 (Where Blue02 VN sits):
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName Blue02 | where {$_.MacAddress -eq “AAAAAAAAAA02”} | Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VirtualSubnetID 5001

“Demystifying” Windows server 2012 Hyper-V 3.0 network virtualization – part II (two hosts / same subnet)

Today I was presenting @ bleedingedge.si conference… My session was about Windows server 2012 / Hyper-V 3.0 network virtualization.

 

I have recorded this sequence of commands so you can see the configuration and how it works:

http://www.screencast.com/t/wsDAKpKumlSm – Hyper-V 3.0 – Network virtualization Part 1

http://www.screencast.com/t/q3G9SViY6gId – Hyper-V 3.0 – Network virtualization Part 2

http://www.screencast.com/t/bxOznDklp – Hyper-V 3.0 – Network virtualization Part 3

 

In my demo environment I have:

Two Windows server 2012 with Hyper-V 3.0 role installed

HV01 / Only one network card so it is used by VMs and host (management) with IP 172.31.200.11
HV02 / Only one network card so it is used by VMs and host (management) with IP 172.31.200.12

On each host there are TWO virtual machines:

On HV01 there are:

– Blue01 (10.10.10.11 with STATIC MAC*address AAAAAAAAAA01)
– Red01 (10.10.10.21 with STATIC MAC*ddress CCCCCCCCCC01)

On HV02 there are:

– Blue02 (10.10.10.12 with STATIC MAC*address AAAAAAAAAA02)
– Red02 (10.10.10.22 with STATIC MAC*address CCCCCCCCCC02)

*You should DEFINE STATIC MAC on Virtual Machine network configuration – you must not use dynamicaly assigned MAC address (System center Virtual machine manager 2012 SP1 will do that for you automaticaly)

By defalt all machines are able to ping themselfs… We want to isolate Blue network so only Blue01 and Blue02 can ping each other and Red network so only Red01 and Red02 can ping each other.

First thing we need to do is to enable ms_netvm component on PHYSICAL NIC! (not on virtual switch created NIC!)
Enable-NetAdapterBinding “Ethernet” -ComponentID ms_netwnv

Second thing is that we need to create Lookup records on both Hyper-V servers. You should copy/paste this script on both hosts:
New-NetVirtualizationLookupRecord -CustomerAddress “10.10.10.11” -ProviderAddress “172.31.200.11” -VirtualSubnetID “5001” -MACAddress “AAAAAAAAAA01” -Rule “TranslationMethodEncap”
New-NetVirtualizationLookupRecord -CustomerAddress “10.10.10.12” -ProviderAddress “172.31.200.12” -VirtualSubnetID “5001” -MACAddress “AAAAAAAAAA02” -Rule “TranslationMethodEncap”

Then you need to create Costumer Route – on both Hyper-V hosts:
New-NetVirtualizationCustomerRoute -RoutingDomainID “{11111111-2222-3333-4444-000000005001}” -VirtualSubnetID “5001” -DestinationPrefix “10.10.10.0/24” -NextHop “0.0.0.0” -Metric 255

Then you need to add provider address to PHYSICAL NIC – you need to find out interface index by using get-netadapter!

In my example on HV01:
New-NetVirtualizationProviderAddress -InterfaceIndex 12 -ProviderAddress “172.31.200.11” -PrefixLength 24
New-NetVirtualizationProviderRoute -InterfaceIndex 12 -DestinationPrefix “0.0.0.0/0” -NextHop “172.31.200.1”

and on HV02:
New-NetVirtualizationProviderAddress -InterfaceIndex 12 -ProviderAddress “172.31.200.12” -PrefixLength 24
New-NetVirtualizationProviderRoute -InterfaceIndex 12 -DestinationPrefix “0.0.0.0/0” -NextHop “172.31.200.1”

When this is done we need to configure VirtualSubnetID on virtual machines:
On HV01 (where Blue01 vm is running) we should do:
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName Blue01 | where {$_.MacAddress -eq “AAAAAAAAAA01”} | Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VirtualSubnetID 5001

and on HV02 (where Blue02 vm is running) we should do:
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName Blue02 | where {$_.MacAddress -eq “AAAAAAAAAA02”} | Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VirtualSubnetID 5001

Now network virtualization will take place and Blue01 will only be able to ping Blue02 and vice-versa. Red01 and Red02 are outside this VitualSubnet. In video you can see network monitoring where you can detect GRE network between hosts.
In video I also do live migration so I move Blue02 machine from HV02 to HV01 so you can see that network virtualization is aware of live migration and moving machines between HV hosts in the same network or also cross premise… I will cover that in next part! 🙂

Let’s virtualise!

Windows server 2008 R2 Active Directory – Recycle Bin Feature

Sometimes you delete user from AD and it could cause a big headache 🙂

Well… No more. Windows server 2008 R2 Beta – which is by the way already publicly available has a new functional level for AD that allows you to activate so called Recycle Bin Feature
In this demo you will se my AD server with a domain called demoadps.local on which I will enable this feature. As I mentioned before – functional level should be Windows server 2008 R2.

Watch the video

First of all you need to enable the feature by typing a Powershell cmdlet/command:

Enable-ADOptionalFeature ‘Recycle Bin Feature’ -Scope Forest -Target ‘domain.local

after that you can check for deleted items by typing:

Get-ADObject -SearchBase “CN=Deleted Objects,DC=domain,DC=local” -ldapFilter “(objectClass=*)” -includeDeletedObjects | FT ObjectGUID,Name -A

This will show you the deleted objects which you can restore by entering:

Restore-ADObject -Identity 6ff46162-15c2-4d42-8e15-2fcac5c8422e

** domain.local should be changed with your domain name
6ff46162-15c2-4d42-8e15-2fcac5c8422e should be changed with a ID that matches your deleted object…

To make it simplier I have recorded a video tutorial to do that…

Windows server 2008 NTFS / SMB2.0 changes part III (packet analyses)

New SMB 2.0 allows higher speeds when transfering files between Windows server 2008 machines and Windows Vista machines.
On gigabit network we can see a drastical improvement in speed and network performance. SMB2.0 allows ACK packets to be sent only after 16 megabyte of data…

 SMB 2.0 as seen by Wireshark*

*Wireshark – excelent network analyzer